Role of sacral neuromodulation in modern urogynaecology practice: a review of recent literature.
Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) offers promise in the therapy of many pelvic floor disorders. This innovative treatment has slowly gained popularity. A review of recent literature is presented in relation to its efficacy and complications in various pelvic floor conditions: overactive bladder and urge urinary incontinence, chronic urinary retention, painful bladder syndrome, pelvic pain and double incontinence. It is a minimally invasive, completely reversible safe procedure with good long-term outcomes. However, the treatment is costly, the revision rate is high and patients require life-long follow-up. SNM should always be considered in suitable patients before offering bladder augmentation procedures or urinary diversion or permanent catheterization for bladder dysfunction. SNM should also be considered in patients with double incontinence, after discussion in a urogynaecology/colorectal multidisciplinary team.