The incidence and causative organisms of infection in elective shoulder surgery.
Background Deep infection remains a serious complication of orthopaedic surgery. Knowledge of infection rates and causative organisms is important to guide infection control measures. The aim of the present study was to determine infection rates and causative organisms in elective shoulder surgery. Methods Cases complicated by infection were identified and prospectively recorded over a 2-year period. All patients undergoing elective shoulder surgery in the concurrent period at a single Specialist Upper Limb Unit in the UK were identified from the hospital electronic database. Results In total, 1574 elective shoulder cases were performed: 1359 arthroscopic (540 with implant insertion) and 215 open (197 with implant insertion). The overall infection rate in open surgery of 2.5% was significantly higher than arthroscopic implant cases at 0.7% (p < 0.005). The overall infection rate in implant arthroscopic surgery was significantly higher at 0.7% compared to 0% in non-implant related surgery. (p < 0.05) Conclusions Patients undergoing open shoulder surgery have a significantly higher risk of infection compared to arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Arthroscopic surgery with implant insertion has a statistically significantly higher risk of developing deep infection compared to procedures with no implant insertion. We recommend prophylactic antibiotics in open shoulder surgery and arthroscopic shoulder surgery with implant insertion.
- Orthopaedics 
Bidwai, Amit S.