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dc.contributor.authorBrook, MS
dc.contributor.authorMitchell, William K
dc.contributor.authorLund, Jonathan
dc.contributor.authorSzewczyk, NJ
dc.contributor.authorGreenhaff, PL
dc.contributor.authorSmith, K
dc.identifier.citationFASEB J. 2015 Nov;29(11):4485-96. doi: 10.1096/fj.15-273755. Epub 2015 Jul 13.language
dc.descriptionAuthor(s) Pre Print Onlylanguage
dc.description.abstractResistance exercise training (RET) is widely used to increase muscle mass in athletes and also aged/cachectic populations. However, the time course and metabolic and molecular control of hypertrophy remain poorly defined. Using newly developed deuterium oxide (D2O)-tracer techniques, we investigated the relationship between long-term muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and hypertrophic responses to RET. A total of 10 men (23 ± 1 yr) undertook 6 wk of unilateral (1-legged) RET [6 × 8 repetitions, 75% 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) 3/wk], rendering 1 leg untrained (UT) and the contralateral, trained (T). After baseline bilateral vastus lateralis (VL) muscle biopsies, subjects consumed 150 ml D2O (70 atom percentage; thereafter 50 ml/wk) with regular body water monitoring in saliva via high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer:isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Further bilateral VL muscle biopsies were taken at 3 and 6 wk to temporally quantify MPS via gas chromatography:pyrolysis:isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Expectedly, only the T leg exhibited marked increases in function [i.e., 1-RM/maximal voluntary contraction (60°)] and VL thickness (peaking at 3 wk). Critically, whereas MPS remained unchanged in the UT leg (e.g., ∼1.35 ± 0.08%/d), the T leg exhibited increased MPS at 0-3 wk (1.6 ± 0.01%/d), but not at 3-6 wk (1.29 ± 0.11%/d); this was reflected by dampened acute mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling responses to RET, beyond 3 wk. Therefore, hypertrophic remodeling is most active during the early stages of RET, reflecting longer-term MPS. Moreover, D2O heralds promise for coupling MPS and muscle mass and providing insight into the control of hypertrophy and efficacy of anabolic interventions.language
dc.subjectAnabolic Signalinglanguage
dc.subjectStable Isotopeslanguage
dc.titleSkeletal muscle hypertrophy adaptations predominate in the early stages of resistance exercise training, matching deuterium oxide-derived measures of muscle protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling.language

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