Elevated serum free pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A independently predicts mortality in haemodialysis patients but is not associated with recurrent haemodialysis-induced ischaemic myocardial injury.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a putative marker of atheroma instability and ischaemic myocardial stress prior to necrosis. Total PAPP-A (tPAPP-A) levels in acute coronary syndromes predict adverse outcomes. However, free PAPP-A (fPAPP-A) predominates in the circulation. Ischaemic haemodialysis (HD)-induced cardiac injury (myocardial stunning) is common and is associated with markers of myocardial necrosis, inflammation, cardiovascular events and mortality. Coronary plaque instability in pathophysiology of HD-induced myocardial stunning has not been studied. We aimed to investigate the relationship of fPAPP-A with stunning and mortality. METHODS: 130 prevalent patients from two HD centres (Finland and UK) were studied. Pre-HD free, complexed and total PAPP-A were measured by immunoassay. A subset of 62 patients underwent echocardiography to assess HD-induced myocardial stunning. The mean duration of follow-up was 407 ± 98 days. RESULTS: fPAPP-A was elevated (median: 3.45 mIU/l) and correlated with dialysis vintage (r = 0.391, p < 0.001), cardiac troponin T (cTnT; r = 0.29, p = 0.001) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI; r = 0.22, p = 0.01). PAPP-A was not related to stunning. Dialysis vintage and cTnT independently predicted Ln fPAPP-A (model R = 0.463). fPAPP-A, cTnT and age independently predicted death (Nagelkerke R(2) = 0.362). CONCLUSIONS: fPAPP-A, a novel predictor of HD-related mortality, demonstrates better prognostic power than tPAPP-A. Coronary plaque instability may contribute to sub-lethal myocardial injury, but may not be critical in pathogenesis of HD-induced ischaemic cardiac injury.
- Specialist Medicine