The radiological management of pseudoaneurysms complicating pancreatitis.
CONTEXT: Pseudoaneurysms associated with pancreatitis are rare, and bleeding pseudoaneurysms are associated with a high mortality. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of endovascular and percutaneous therapy in the management of pseudoaneurysms secondary to pancreatitis. PATIENTS: Patients who underwent angiography for pseudoaneurysms associated with pancreatitis from 2005 to 2011 were identified from the angiography database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient demographics, clinical presentation, radiological findings, treatment, and outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Nineteen pseudoaneurysms associated with pancreatitis in 13 patients were identified. The diagnosis of a pseudoaneurysm was made by computerised tomography angiography in seven patients, followed by portal venous phase contrast enhanced CT (n=4), duplex ultrasound (n=1) and angiography (n=1). At angiography, coil embolisation was attempted in 11 patients with an initial success rate of 82% (n=9). One patient underwent successful embolisation with percutaneous thrombin injection. The recurrence rate following initial successful embolisation was 11% (n=1). There were no episodes of re-bleeding following embolisation but re-bleeding following thrombin injection was observed in one case. The morbidity and mortality rate in the 12 patients that were successfully treated was 25% (n=3) and 8% (n=1), respectively. All 12 patients that were successfully treated demonstrated radiological resolution of their pseudoaneurysms, with a median follow-up of 20 months. CONCLUSION: Endovascular embolisation is a suitable first-line management strategy associated with low recurrence rates. The role of percutaneous thrombin injection is yet to be defined.
- Imaging 
De Rosa, Antonella
De Nunzio, Mario